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Full text of "Monthly Performance Report: Washington Natural Gas"

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J FEB 20«* 




SOLAR/1002-79/02 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



WASHINGTON NATURAL GAS 



FEBRUARY 1979 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



4252 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by me United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 
WASHINGTON NATURAL GAS COMPANY 
FEBRUARY 1979 



I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Washington Natural Gas Company site is a single-family residence in 
Kirkland, Washington. The home has approximately 2607 square feet of condi- 
tioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating 
domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate 
collectors with a gross area of 591 square feet. The array faces south at an 
angle of 57 degrees to the horizontal. Air is the transfer medium that 
delivers solar energy from the collector array to storage and to the space 
heating and hot water loads. Solar energy is stored underground in a 273-cubic- 
foot bin containing 27,300 pounds of smooth stones. The bin has two inches 
of styrofoam insulation. Preheated city water is stored in an 80-gallon 
preheat storage tank and supplied, on demand, to a conventional 50-gallon OHW 
tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a 
gas furnace provides auxiliary energy for space heating. Similarly, a gas- 
fired unit in the DHW tank provides auxiliary energy for water heating. The 
system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has four modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when there is no demand 
for space heating, and the temperature of the collector outlet exceeds that 
of the solar energy storage bin as measured by the control system sensors. 
Air circulates from the collector, through the air-to-liquid heat exchanger, 
through the air-handling unit and then through the solar energy storage bin 
to the collector. This mode exists as long as the temperature of the storage 
bin does not exceed 140°F. 

Mode 2 - Storage- to-Space Heating : This mode activates when space heating is 
required, the solar insolation is insufficient to furnish the required energy 
from the collector, and the temperature of the solar energy storage bin is 
higher than 90°F, as indicated by the control system sensors. Air circulates 
from the solar energy storage bin, through the air-handling unit and gas 
furnace, then returns to the storage bin, bypassing the collectors. 

Mode 3 - Col lector- to-DHW Tank : This mode activates during the summer when 
the collector outlet temperature is higher than the temperature of the water 
in the preheat tank as indicated by the control system sensors. Air circulates 
from the collector, through the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the air- 
handling unit, and returns to the collectors, bypassing the solar energy 
storage bin. Domestic water preheating also occurs in modes 1 and 4. 

Mode 4 - Col lector- to-Space Heating : This mode activates when the collector 
is operating, and the plenum temperature at the top of storage, as indicated 
by the control system sensors, is higher than the minimum value suitable for 
supplying heat to the house. Heated air is circulated through the house by 
the air-handling unit before being returned to the collector. 



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II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 



The site was occupied during the month of February and the solar energy 
system was operational during the entire month. Solar energy satisfied 23 
percent of the DHW requirements and 15 percent of the space heating require- 
ments. The solar energy system incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.45 
million Btu and provided a fossil fuel energy savings of 1.2 million Btu. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 6.8 
million Btu for a daily average of 410 Btu per square foot. This was below 
the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during 
February of 813 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt of 
57 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during February 
was 42°F as compared with the long-term average for February of 42°F. The 
number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 
629 as compared with the long-term average of 636. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During February the solar energy system performed somewhat better 
than expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified 
f-chart analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar 
energy collected was 2.0 million Btu versus an estimated 0.34 million Btu. 
Solar energy used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy 
collected would be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 0.73 
million Btu. System total solar fraction was 18 percent versus an estimated 
8 percent. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of February was 6.8 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 
was operating the total insolation amounted to 4.4 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of February was 2.0 million Btu, resulting 
in a collector array efficiency of 29 percent, based on total incident inso- 
lation. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 1.1 
million Btu. Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.44 million 
Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 1.1 million Btu; there was no 
auxiliary energy contribution to storage. There were 0.39 million Btu delivered 
from storage to the space heating subsystem. Energy loss from storage was 
0.80 million Btu; this loss represented 71 percent of the energy delivered to 
storage. The storage efficiency was 29 percent: This is calculated as the 
ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and the change in stored 
energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average storage temperature 
for the month was 70°F. 



4252 



DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed 0.32 million Btu of solar energy and 
1.8 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a hot water load 
of 1.4 million Btu resulting in a fossil fuel energy savings of 0.53 million 
Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 23 percent. Losses from the DHW 
subsystem were 0.72 million Btu. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 0.012 
million Btu of operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy expense of 
0.012 million Btu. A daily average of 59 gallons of DHW was consumed at an 
average temperature of 149°F delivered from the tank. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed 0.42 million Btu of 
solar energy and 4.0 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a 
space heating load of 2.8 million Btu, resulting in a fossil fuel energy 
savings of 0.70 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 15 percent. 
Losses from the space heating subsystem were 1.6 million Btu. The space 
heating subsystem consumed a total operating energy of 0.38 million Btu. 

OBSERVATIONS 

The month of February was a very harsh month. A combination of extreme cold 
and extremely low insolation resulted in the use of auxiliary energy to 
charge storage. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a total electrical energy expense of 0.45 
million Btu and a total fossil fuel energy savings of 1.2 million Btu. The 
DHW subsystem incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.012 million Btu and 
a fossil fuel energy savings of 0.53 million Btu. The space heating subsystem 
contributed a fossil fuel energy savings of 0.70 million Btu. 

III. ACTION STATUS 

No action is planned at this time. 



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